BIOPHYSICAL CHEMISTRY BY UPADHYAY PDF

The two acids therefore end up giving similar titration profiles. The acidity me asured b] titration is known as the total or the titratable acidity and reflects the conce ntration of an acia in solution. It does not, however, reflect the strength of an acid or its actual acidity. The free hydronium ion concentration, [H30], dominates chemical reactions in phys iological systems. Since all physiological fluids are aqueous based, the concent ration of hydronium long may determine the extent to which the reaction proceeds, the rate at which it go es, or the detailed mechanism of how it takes place in such solutions.

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The two acids therefore end up giving similar titration profiles. The acidity me asured b] titration is known as the total or the titratable acidity and reflects the conce ntration of an acia in solution. It does not, however, reflect the strength of an acid or its actual acidity. The free hydronium ion concentration, [H30], dominates chemical reactions in phys iological systems. Since all physiological fluids are aqueous based, the concent ration of hydronium long may determine the extent to which the reaction proceeds, the rate at which it go es, or the detailed mechanism of how it takes place in such solutions.

For example, in both. Adjusting and controlling the free hydronlum ion concentration is a necessity in any biochemical experiment.

To understand the complex equilibria which are always pr esent in an acid - base system is therefore of paramount importance. The I,w of Ma ,tion The law of mass action, evolved mainly by Guldberg and Waage, states that the ra te of a chemical reaclon at a 9hen time s proportlonoJ to the active masses of reactj su bstances present at that time.

The active mass for molecules is essentially equal to their molar concentrations. However, for long.

Note that the reaction is reversible. Apart from the molecular concentration, thechemi cal aiIties of the reactants should also be taken into account. The chemical affinities are con stant at a given temperature and other reaction conditions.

In the above equation, therefore, we might introduce a proportionality constant which corrects for the particular chemical affinity. Writing expression for the velocity of the reaction to the leR V! At equilibrium, the rate of the reaction to the right and that to the left will be equal. The law of chemical equilibrium may be applied to virtually all reversible react ions and including the ionization of acids and bases.

It may further be expected that at any instant a minute fractio n collisions might give rise to the following change: This reaction is better illustrated in Figure 1. Biophysical Chemistry Figure 1. A collision between two water molecules can result n the formation o f a hydronlwn ion and a hydrox ion.

The collision should be of su. Thus ionization of water forms these two long in equal num bers therek ensuring that pure water is essentially neutral. The dissociation of water has b een confirme by electrical conductivity experiments. This means that water is almost a nonelectrolyte. At higher temperatures the number collisions between water molecules will be higher producing a sllghtly higher nu mber hydronium long.

But the water will stay essentially neutral because an equa lly higher numb of hydroxyl long will also form. It is therefo re necessary th we express the extent of ionization of water quantitatively. This means that t! T he concentration of wat. Substituting this value in equilibrium constant expression we get 13 From electrical conductivity measurements of water thevalue of Keq has been calc ulated il very carefully and has been,found to be 1.

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Biophysical Chemistry Upadhyay

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BIOPHYSICAL CHEMISTRY PRINCIPLES AND TECHNIQUES BY UPADHYAY PDF

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