BREAKPOINT CHLORINATION PDF

Breakpoint chlorination is defined as the point where enough chlorine has been added to a quantity of water to satisfy its disinfecting demand. In other words, it is the point where all undesirable contaminants have been removed from the water. At breakpoint chlorination, all the added chlorine is consumed by chemical reactions with the contaminants, resulting in no free available chlorine FAC in the water. As chlorine is added, it reacts with ammonia and nitrogen in the water, oxidizing them to create disinfecting byproducts known as chloramines.

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Where water already contains ammonia the production of chloramine is unavoidable when chlorine is added. To ensure the production of free chlorine to enhance bacterial kill, substantially more chlorine may have to be added because the additional chlorine at first only causes a reduction of the chloramines by oxidation. Only when this reaction is completed does the addition of further chlorine produce free chlorine. Stoichiometrically the breakdown of ammonia to nitrogen commences at a chlorine:ammonia as N ratio of and completes at a ratio of 7.

In laboratory experiments, observed that for neutral to slightly alkaline pH when the ratio of chlorine to ammonia as N is less than by weight the residual was mainly NH2C1; breakpoint occurred at 9. As the ratio increased to and above there was a decrease in combined chlorine accompanied by increases in NC13 and free C Apart from the advantage of producing free chlorine, breakpoint chlorination can sometimes reduce taste and odour problems. The foregoing reactions are complex, being dependent on numerous factors such as temperature, pH and contact time.

The breakpoint reaction could take about 20 minutes to complete and depends on the water quality. In some waters the ammonia content may be so high 0. This is called Breakpoint Chlorination in water treatment process.

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It is these pollutants which can cause stinging eyes and mal odours. These are primarily measured as ammoniacal nitrogen The effectiveness of the disinfection process is related to the pH of the water and the lower the pH the greater the efficiency of disinfection. The process of water treatment used in the UK is known as breakpoint chlorination. What does breakpoint chlorination mean? Breakpoint chlorination is the point where the demand for chlorine has been fully satisfied in terms of chlorine addition to the water. In other words, the chlorine has completely reacted with the bather pollutants leaving a zero chlorine residual. Once this demand is fully satisfied the chlorine concentration will increase in the pool water to produce a permanent free chlorine residual.

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Breakpoint Chlorination in Water Treatment Process

History[ edit ] In a paper published in , it was formally proposed to add chlorine to water to render it "germ-free". Two other authorities endorsed this proposal and published it in many other papers in In the town of Maidstone , England was the first to have its entire water supply treated with chlorine. His installation fed a concentrated solution of so-called chloride of lime to the water being treated. This was not simply modern calcium chloride, but contained chlorine gas dissolved in lime-water dilute calcium hydroxide to form calcium hypochlorite chlorinated lime. The chlorination of the water supply helped stop the epidemic and as a precaution, the chlorination was continued until when a new water supply was instituted.

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Water chlorination

Oxidation-reduction potential Continual breakpoint chlorination Continual breakpoint chlorination uses the continual addition of chlorine after bathers have left the pool to oxidise combined chlorine so that all of the total chlorine exists as free chlorine. Last updated: 09 April Content 1 Graphical representation of breakpoint chlorination The above graph demonstrates the theory of continuous breakpoint chlorination. On the right vertical axis is the ammonia-nitrogen i. The bottom horizontal axis represents the ratio of chlorine Cl2 to ammonia NH2 by weight which is zero on the left and increases to the right.

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What is breakpoint chlorination?

Where water already contains ammonia the production of chloramine is unavoidable when chlorine is added. To ensure the production of free chlorine to enhance bacterial kill, substantially more chlorine may have to be added because the additional chlorine at first only causes a reduction of the chloramines by oxidation. Only when this reaction is completed does the addition of further chlorine produce free chlorine. Stoichiometrically the breakdown of ammonia to nitrogen commences at a chlorine:ammonia as N ratio of and completes at a ratio of 7. In laboratory experiments, observed that for neutral to slightly alkaline pH when the ratio of chlorine to ammonia as N is less than by weight the residual was mainly NH2C1; breakpoint occurred at 9. As the ratio increased to and above there was a decrease in combined chlorine accompanied by increases in NC13 and free C

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