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Family: : Clusiaceae Commonly known as nagachampa, punnaga, punnai, honne. Calophyllum is a very large genus comprising about species. Botanical description: Habit and Habitat: It is a medium to large sized evergreen tree.
The tree is 8—20 m in height. It has a broad spreading crown. It grows in warm temperature in wet or moderate conditions. It grows in a wide range of soils. It grows best in sandy well drained soils in coastal areas. It is tolerant to wind, salt spray, drought and brief periods of water logging. Root System: The root system is woody, shallow, spreading in nature since the trees are adapted to shallow and occasionll flooded soils along the coasts.
Stem: The tree bears large horizontal branches. The bark is grey in colour with deep fissures alternating with flat ridges. Sap is milky white. The trunks of oil trees can grow up to 1 m in diameter. The tree canopy is dense, so preventing the growth of other plants underneath.
Leaf: The leaves are arranged opposite. They are dark green, shiny and hairless with broadly elliptical blades cm long and cm wide. The tip and base of the leaf are round. Leaf veins are parallel to each other and perpendicular to the midrib. Floral Biology: Young tree beings to flower after years.
Flower cluster bears flowers 2. Flowers are usually bisexual but sometimes functionally unisexual, with perianth of oblong petals in several whorls. The flowers are pollinated by insects such as bees. Formation and development of fruits: The outer skin turns yellow and then brown when the fruit is ripe. At the stage of maturity it becomes wrinkled. The outer skin covers the thin pulp, the shell, corky inner layer and a seed.
Fruit and Seed: The fruits are round in shape, light green fruit seen in clusters. Fruits are cm in diameter. Seeds are brown in colour cm in diameter.
Seeds posses large cotyledons and radical pointing to the base of the fruit Crop improvement Tree improvement program involves identification of superior quality trees with respect to seed yield and oil content.
Collection of seeds and evaluation of elite characters of the tree for three consecutive years. Maintenance of germplasm for further studies on variability and tree improvement programs. Cultivation aspects Germination: Thick, hard shells of the fruit can cause delay in germination therefore shelling the seed before germination is recommended. Seeds are recalcitrant, since seeds are oily they quickly lose their germinative power.
Propagation: Natural propogation occurs near the mother tree. Propogation through germination has been successful in Calophyllum and development of propogation techniques for superior quality genotypes is necessary. Wedge grafting of superior genotypes have been standardized. Pruning of the tree is essential during every Pest and disease: In adult trees leaves and shoots are susceptible to attack by various insects and fungus rot. The fungus Fomes dochmius causes brown cuboidal rot in the plants.
Trees are affected by a vascular wilt disease caused by the fungus Leptographium calophylli, which causes severe die-back and ultimately death of the tree. The beetle Cryphalus trypanus is the likely vector of the pathogen. Phytochemistry Chemical constituents show the existence of wide variety of natural products, such as pyranocoumarins, xanthones, triterpenes and flavonoids, Root bark and nut of calophyllum inophyllum consists of xanthone derivatives namely inoxanthone.
From the twigs of plant prenylated xanthones, namely caloxanthones were recorded Uses Callophyllum protects coastlines and stabilizes dunes, and the dense foliage shelters more sensitive plants from salt spray.
The tree is planted for shade, reforestation, afforestation programs. Medicine: Oil is used for cosmetic and healing of burns and skin disease. The latex or a decotion of the bark is used as a lotion for ulcers. Decotion of the root is employed for dressing ulcers and also for application in heatstroke. The active principles possessed various bioactivities such as anti-HIV-1, anti-microbial, and cytotoxic activities.
Wood: The wood is used for posts, beams, furniture, railway carriages, crane shafts, musical instruments and blowpipes. It is employed in ship building especially for keels and for pulley blocks.
It is also used for fishing boats, cabinet work. Latex from the cut bark has been made into a poison to kill rodents and stun fish. Bark contains tannins used to toughen fish nets. Leaves: A decoction of the leaves is used to treat eye ailments. Leaves contain saponin and hydrocyanic acid which is poisonous to fish.
Oil: Oil from seeds are used as lamp oil. It may be used as massage for hair oil when scented. It is used as wood finish. In rheumatism and infections of the skin oil is applied externally. Refined oil is injected intramuscularly to relive pain in leprosy. Oil has also shown anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antibacterial and insecticidal activity.
Calophyllum oil and biodiesel.
Calophyllum inophyllum bio (Tamanu)
During fuel oil consumption in Indonesia reached Fuel consumption is not in line with fuel production, necessitating the development of alternatives energy. One of them is to use Nyamplung seed that is processed into biodiesel. Nyamplung Calophyllum inophyllum L. Nyamplung plant is one of the biodiesel alternative materials that have a large potential to be developed to overcome the problem of scarcity of fuel. The purpose of this study is to analyze techno-economic aspect of biodiesel industry establishment of Nyamplung seed.
Calophyllum inophyllum (L.)
Names[ edit ] Calophyllum inophyllum is also known as Alexandrian laurel   balltree,  beach touriga,  Borneo-mahogany,  Indian doomba oiltree,  Indian-laurel,  laurelwood,  red poon,  satin touriga,  and tacamahac-tree. Flowering can occur perennially, but usually two distinct flowering periods are observed, in late spring and in late autumn. When ripe, the fruit is wrinkled and its color varies from yellow to brownish-red. However, it has also been cultivated successfully in inland areas at moderate altitudes. It tolerates varied kinds of soil , coastal sand , clay , or even degraded soil. Other species of the genus Calophyllum were also used similarly, like Calophyllum soulattri , Calophyllum peekelii , and Calophyllum goniocarpum. They were comparable in importance to how oaks were in European shipbuilding and timber industries.
Analisa teknoekonomi pendirian industry biodiesel dari biji nyamplung (Calophyllum inophyllum L.)
Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya. Indonesian Abstract Minyak bumi merupakan sumber energi utama yang dipakai di banyak negara termasuk Indonesia. Kebutuhan bahan bakar minyak bumi selalu meningkat, seiring dengan penggunaanya di bidang industri dan transportasi. Penyebab dari masalah ini karena minyak bumi merupakan sumber daya alam yang tidak dapat diperbahurui. Sehingga cara yang digunakan untuk mendapatkan sumber bahan bakar alternatif adalah dengan menemukan bahan bakar yang berasal dari tumbuhtumbuhan yaitu biodiesel. Salah satu jenis tanaman yang dapat digunakan dan berpotensi sebagai sumber energi alternatif biodiesel adalah buah Nyamplung Calophyllum inophyllum L.