Oksidirajudi tip smoga se pojavljuje u sunanim krajevima, gdje je velika emisija ugljovodonika i azot aksida koji potiu od automobila i industrijskih izvora i gdje su atmosferske inverzije temperature uestale. Oksidirajudi smog se formira kada se primarno emitirana zagaenja transformiu pomodu kompleksne fotohemijske reakcije u sekundarna zagaenja, uglavnom poznati kao ozon i peroksiacetil nitrat. To su oni sekundarni gasovi koji su najvie tetni za ljude i vegetaciju i oznaeni kao oksidirajudi smog. Ove sitne estice ukljuuju inertne silikate ili druge minerale; praina sadri toksine elemente kao to su arsen, olovo, bakar, nikl, itd.
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Further information: History of ecology The roots of ecology as a broader discipline can be traced to the Greeks and a lengthy list of developments in natural history science. Ecology also has notably developed in other cultures. Traditional knowledge, as it is called, includes the human propensity for intuitive knowledge, intelligent relations, understanding, and for passing on information about the natural world and the human experience.
In his publication, Specimen academicum de oeconomia naturae, Linnaeus developed a science that included the economy and polis of nature. Polis stems from its Greek roots for a political community originally based on the city-states , sharing its roots with the word police in reference to the promotion of growth and maintenance of good social order in a community. Spencer was influenced by and reciprocated his influence onto the works of Charles Darwin. Herbert Spencer coined the phrase " survival of the fittest ", he was an early founder of sociology where he developed the idea of society as an organism, and he created an early precedent for the socio-ecological approach that was the subsequent aim and link between sociology and human ecology.
Human values, wealth, life-styles, resource use, and waste, etc. The nature of these interactions is a legitimate ecological research topic and one of increasing importance. Marsh was interested in the active agency of human-nature interactions an early precursor to urban ecology or human niche construction in frequent reference to the economy of nature.
Small , collaborated with sociologist George E. Vincent and published a ""laboratory guide" to studying people in their "every-day occupations. Their publication "explicitly included the relation of the social world to the material environment. Richards first introduced the term as " oekology " in , and subsequently developed the term "human ecology".
Park and Ernest W. Burgess also from the sociology department at the University of Chicago. Their student, Roderick D. McKenzie helped solidify human ecology as a sub-discipline within the Chicago school. Some authors have argued that geography is human ecology. Much historical debate has hinged on the placement of humanity as part or as separate from nature. He saw the vast "explosion" of problems humans were creating for the environment and reminded us that "what is important is the work to be done rather than the label.
Bates  notes lines of continuity in the discipline and the way it has changed: Today there is greater emphasis on the problems facing individuals and how actors deal with them with the consequence that there is much more attention to decision-making at the individual level as people strategize and optimize risk, costs and benefits within specific contexts.
Some of these applications focus instead on addressing problems that cross disciplinary boundaries or transcend those boundaries altogether. Scholarship has increasingly tended away from Gerald L. This new human ecology emphasizes complexity over reductionism , focuses on changes over stable states, and expands ecological concepts beyond plants and animals to include people. Application to epidemiology and public health[ edit ] The application of ecological concepts to epidemiology has similar roots to those of other disciplinary applications, with Carl Linnaeus having played a seminal role.
However, the term appears to have come into common use in the medical and public health literature in the mid-twentieth century. However, as early as the s, a number of universities began to rename home economics departments, schools, and colleges as human ecology programs.
In part, this name change was a response to perceived difficulties with the term home economics in a modernizing society, and reflects a recognition of human ecology as one of the initial choices for the discipline which was to become home economics.
Niche of the Anthropocene[ edit ] See also: Novel ecosystem Perhaps the most important implication involves our view of human society. Homo sapiens is not an external disturbance, it is a keystone species within the system.
In the long term, it may not be the magnitude of extracted goods and services that will determine sustainability. It may well be our disruption of ecological recovery and stability mechanisms that determines system collapse. Human ecology has created anthropogenic biomes called anthromes.
Technodiversity exists within these technoecosystems. A safer assumption holds that human enterprise almost always exacts an ecological toll - a debit taken from the ecological commons. Ecosystems regulate the global geophysical cycles of energy, climate, soil nutrients, and water that in turn support and grow natural capital including the environmental, physiological, cognitive, cultural, and spiritual dimensions of life.
Ultimately, every manufactured product in human environments comes from natural systems. The ecological commons includes provisioning e. Species loss is accelerating at — times faster than average background rates in the fossil record.
Ecosystems regenerate, withstand, and are forever adapting to fluctuating environments. Ecological resilience is an important conceptual framework in conservation management and it is defined as the preservation of biological relations in ecosystems that persevere and regenerate in response to disturbance over time. Three planetary thresholds have already been crossed, including biodiversity loss , climate change , and nitrogen cycles. These biophysical systems are ecologically interrelated and naturally resilient, but human civilization has transitioned the planet to an Anthropocene epoch, where the threshold for planetary scale resilience has been crossed and the ecological state of the Earth is deteriorating rapidly to the detriment of humanity.
The total area of land required to sustain an urban region its "ecological footprint" is typically at least an order of magnitude greater than that contained within municipal boundaries or the associated built-up area.
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Further information: History of ecology The roots of ecology as a broader discipline can be traced to the Greeks and a lengthy list of developments in natural history science. Ecology also has notably developed in other cultures. Traditional knowledge, as it is called, includes the human propensity for intuitive knowledge, intelligent relations, understanding, and for passing on information about the natural world and the human experience. In his publication, Specimen academicum de oeconomia naturae, Linnaeus developed a science that included the economy and polis of nature.